Nitrogen: Ammonification followed by microbial : Nitrification and de – nitrification

   Metals: Adsorption and cation exchange : Complexation

   Plant Uptake : Microbial Oxidation : Reduction

   Pathogen: Sedimentation : Filtration : Natural die – off : Predation
   UV irradiation : Excretion of antibiotics from the roots of macrophytes.


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